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Ostland was one of the Reichskommissariats established by the Fuhrer's decree of 17 July 1941, which was under the local administration of the Reichskommissaren. Wojewodztwo inflanckie was to form a special administration for the Eastern region of Poland and the rest of Central Europe. The ability to disregard the relevant ministries has been referred to as special administrations in the case of special administrations.

Later in September, the civil administration, which had been adopted in July of the previous year, was actually established by decree.

Duke Albrecht (r. 1525 - 1568) had been expelled from the Empire, and the Duchy of Prussia could not help for the same reason. The autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, under the leadership of the Duke von Koch, a member of his family, functioned as in the past, as far as the rules of dress and politics were concerned. Koch would not bow to the demands of those whose independence and authority as Gauleiter sought to administer his authority, but rather to his territories.

Despite the agreement in the Rzeczpospolita, the fight was resumed, this time with the help of the Duchy of Prussia and the Teutonic Order.

He wanted to acquire his own land in Livonia, lent money to Poland, and claimed a castle that Poland had pledged as his "own" in order to put Poland under pressure. Sigismund knew that Frederick II was ready for peace and that both sides were financially exhausted, but Johan III continued his quest for more lands in Moscow and acquired lands that Sweden controlled. He knew that Frederick III, son of the Swedish king and heir to the Polish throne, was at peace with his father and that he was ready for peace.

The Kingdom of Poland also began direct negotiations with Gustav, but nothing happened until Gustav Vasa died on September 29, 1560, and Ferdinand I, the Holy Roman Emperor, again asked Gustav and Sweden for help. On August 7, 1562 Frederick II negotiated with Ivan IV to help his brother to obtain more land and to stop further Swedish advances. Magnus and his brothers and Frederick II disagreed and the Lübeck Treaty, which pitted Sweden against the Free City of Lubesck between Denmark and Poland, was broken. Eric XIV of Sweden did not like it and Erik XIV did not like it, and so the treaty between Sweden and Denmark, the "free" city in the free city of Lublin, was broken, and this put the two countries against each other for control of Livonia.

The city-state of Lübeck was contested, and the Hanseatic League was greatly weakened by this conflict (which needed clarification).

Thus, in the thirteenth century, a division developed into five rival small principalities, and in the years 1626 - 1629, after the Polish-Swedish War, Sweden gave up its control over the city-state of Riga, the capital of Lithuania. The area, usually known as "Swedish Livania," became a very important Swedish domination, with RIGA being the second largest Swedish city, while RIGA paid one third of all Swedish war costs. It remained under Russian rule until the end of World War II, when it was split into the newly independent states of Latvia and Estonia.

After his return to Finland, Erik XIV forbade him to negotiate with foreign countries without his consent. Finally, in 1569, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland formed the Polish-Lithuanian community under the Union of Lublin. In 1578 Magnus of Livonia recognised the sovereignty of his own kingdom, which had not been ratified by either the Sejm of Poland or Lithuania, nor recognised by Denmark.

Magnus represented Denmark and thus proved to be a suitable figurehead for both factions, but was later pulled out of a deal with Ivan IV. The sovereignty of Lithuania and the territorial integrity of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were at stake, and Magnus has fared better than his rival Frederick II, Duke of Saxony and his brother, who is - in law - only to lose land and trade.

Magnus, who became bishop of Courland and Osel-Wiek in 1560, and his balance sheet looks particularly good in the 15 60s and 1570s. Magnus was celebrated as his saviour by citizens who fled from the bishop's see of Dorpat and were deported to Moscow by their saviours until 1571.

The great threat continued to live on, but it evaporated when Ivan IV sent his troops back to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth he had fought against, asking to remain under the control of his brother-in-law, the Duke of Lithuania. Lithuanians and other towns and cities in the region have lost their capital Vilnius.

In 1218 Albert asked King Waldemar II of Denmark for help, but instead he arranged a deal with the Brotherhood and conquered northern Estonia for Denmark. Shortly afterwards Erik XIV quickly lost his ally in the form of Magnus, Archbishop of Riga. In 1578 Magnus of Livonia withdrew from the Kurzeme diocese, handed over the land to his brother and retired to Rzeczpospolita. Magnus "brother gave it to the brother of his son-in-law, the Lithuanian Duke Ivan IV.

More About Livonia

More About Livonia